BGP Message Types

BGP uses four basic messages. Table 12-4 lists the message types and provides a brief description of each. Table 12-4 BGP Message Types

Multicast Addressing for Updates

EIGRP uses both multicast and unicast addressing. Some packets are sent reliably using Real-Time Protocol (RTP), a Cisco proprietary protocol that oversees the communication of EIGRP packets. These packets are sent with sequence numbers to make the transmission of data reliable. Hellos and ACKs do n...

OSPF Areas

OSPF provides two levels of hierarchy throughout an area. An area is a 32-bit number that can be defined either in an IP address format of "Area" or as a decimal number format, such as "Area 0." Area 0 is a backbone area, which is required if more than one area is configured. All areas must...

Distribution Routers

Distribution routers consolidate connections from access routers. They are often arranged in a configuration that is resilient to failure of a single core router. Distribution routers usually contain topological information about their own region, but they forward packets to a backbone router for in...

Converting Broadcasts to Multicasts

Cisco has a special feature called an IP Multicast Helper, which you can use to convert broadcast packets to multicast packets. Then you can use PIM to send these packets throughout the network. At the last-hop routers you can then convert the multicast packets back to broadcast. This is useful for...

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