Manual Summaries and the AS_PATH Path Attribute

As covered in the last several pages, a router can add entries to its BGP table using the network command and route redistribution. Additionally, BGP can use manual route summarization to advertise summary routes to neighboring routers, causing the neighboring routers to learn additional BGP routes....

Basic IP Subnetting

Basic subnetting and variable-length subnets are often misunderstood. This section gives a brief introduction to how subnetting works, and the next section discusses variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs). A subnet, or subnetwork, is a subset of a Class A, B, or C network. To better understand subnett...

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

If noise at the radio card is high, the radio card will have difficulty recovering the signal, which results in bits errors and retransmissions. An important signal measurement is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The SNR (in dB) at a particular point in the network is simply the signal power (in dBm...

Single CPU Designs

The first approach utilizes a single CPU-controlled shared bus that connects a number of slave interface cards. This arrangement can be based on a general-purpose computer, such as a PC running UNIX or Windows NT. Various bus communication strategies (such as shared memory, DMA, and bus mastering), ...

The Need for Queuing on Frame Relay Networks

Modern Frame Relay networks service a mixed variety of traffic types from users. Among the different types of traffic, mission-critical and delay-sensitive traffic are extremely susceptible to network latency. For example, delay-sensitive traffic, such as voice, is intolerant to network latency and ...

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