Physical Versus Logical Connections

External BGP neighbors have a restriction in that they must be physically connected, adjacent to one another. BGP drops any UPDATE message from its external BGP peer if the peer is not physically connected, unless otherwise specified. However, some situations arise in which external neighbors cannot...

Neighborship and Reliable Incremental Updates

EIGRP produces reliable updates by identifying its packets using IP protocol 88. Reliable, in a networking context, means that the receiver acknowledges that the transmission was received and understood. EIGRP only repeats itself if an advertisement is lost, so EIGRP is less "chatty" than other prot...

Understanding QoS

Appreciating what QoS tools and methods do to packets in a network is fundamental to appreciating the effect of individual QoS tools discussed in later chapters, and ultimately understanding the network designs and methods that constitute the material in this book. End-to-End QoS Regardless of h...

Adjusting OSPF Costs

The auto-cost reference-bandwidth command allows you to change the reference bandwidth that OSPF uses to calculate its metrics: Router5#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line.   End with CNTL/Z. Router5(config)#router ospf 87 Router5(config-router)#au...

Using Policy-Based Routing to Route Based on Source Address

This configuration example defines a special routing policy for a group of users defined by the route map called "Engineers." This name is arbitrary, and we recommend that you choose names for your route maps that are meaningful in your organization. This example applies the route map to all of the ...

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