NEXT_HOP Behavior Over Nonbroadcast Multiaccess Media

Media such as Frame Relay and ATM are referred to as nonbroadcast multiaccess media. Themany-to-many direct interaction between routers is not guaranteed unless virtual circuits areconfigured from each router to all other routers. This is referred to as a full-mesh topology,and it is not always impl...

Ad Hoc Mode Operation

With ad hoc wireless LANs, there are no access points; therefore, the radio cards must send beacons. The ad hoc mode of operation transpires as follows: 1. After a user switches to ad hoc mode, the radio card begins sending beacons if one is not received within a specific period of time. 2. Af...

Passive Scanning

The following list describes the process that occurs when a radio card uses passive scanning: 1.    The radio card automatically tunes to each RF channel, listens for a period of time, and records information it finds regarding access points on each channel. 2.    ...

IPsec Modes of Operation and Security Options

IPsec has many protocol options. This section provides a brief look at the main elements. One concept that's important to understand for IPsec is the concept of security associations, or SAs. An SA is simply a connection that provides security services to the traffic carried by it. When you use IPse...

Your Service Provider Doesn't Do What You Want

Some service providers support only a limited range of MPLS features. The most common missing features are specific routing protocols for PE-CE routing and multicast support. This example will assume that you want to pass OSPF and multicast through an MPLS network that supports only BGP: Route...

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