Multiprotocol Label Switching Introduction

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is an emerging technology that aims to address many of the existing issues associated with packet forwarding in today

KEEPALIVE Messages

KEEPALIVE messages are comprised only of the 19-byte BGP message header shown in Figure 11-3. These are exchanged whenever an update-free period exceeds the holdtime negotiated in the OPEN message exchange. A KEEPALIVE is also sent to acknowledge the OPEN message before moving from the OPEN_SENT to ...

IP Integration into IS-IS

IP routing is integrated into IS-IS via carrying IP reachability information in LSPs. All Internet Protocol (IP) networks are considered externals, and they always end up as leaf nodes in the shortest path tree when IS-IS runs SPF. This means that changes in IP reachability alone result in only ...

Enabling and Disabling NTP Per Interface

Depending on the level of access control required, you can use the ntp disable command to prevent the router from providing NTP services on a particular interface: Router#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#interface Serial0/1 R...

Configuring the VTP Mode

Next, you need to choose the VTP mode for the new switch. The three VTP modes of operation and their guidelines for use are as follows:

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