Digital Subscriber Line

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) services provide high-speed, low-cost Internet access. They fit nicely between dialup and dedicated access services in terms of both price and speed. DSL service types vary based on which DSL technology is employed. The term xDSL is commonly used to refer to generic DSL...

Rate-Limiting and Committed Access Rate

Rate-limiting controls the volume of data entering the network. It is generally deployed on routers that aggregate customer links, and configured parameters may be used as the basis of charging for the link.   In particular, if the capacity of the access circuit exceeds the network cap...

Graft Message

When new hosts join a group, routers may need to change the current SPT for a particular (S,G) entry. With PIM-DM, one option could be to wait on the pruned links to expire. For example, in Figure 20-9, R3 could simply quit sending State Refresh messages, and within 3 minutes at most, R3 would be re...

Various components comprise an MPOA system

The following sections describe each of the significant components. Figure 10-2 illustrates the components and their positional relationship. Note that there are ingress and egress devices, inbound and outbound flows, and configuration, control, and data flows. Figure 10-2. MPOA Model ...

Spanning-Tree Communication: Bridge Protocol Data Units

STP operates as switches communicate with one another. Data messages are exchanged in the form of bridge protocol data units (BPDU). A switch sends a BPDU frame out a port, using the unique MAC address of the port itself as a source address. The switch is unaware of the other switches around it, s...

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