RIP Convergence and Loop Prevention

The most interesting and complicated part of RIP relates to loop-prevention methods used during convergence after a route has failed. Some protocols, like OSPF, IS-IS, and EIGRP, include loop prevention as a side effect of their underlying route computations. However, RIP, like other distance vector...

Hello Packets

Hello packets are sent to multicast MAC-layer addresses to determine whether other systems are running IS-IS. There are three types of hello packets in IS-IS: one for point-to-point interfaces, one for level 1 routers, and one for level 2 routers. The hellos sent to level 1 and level 2 routers are g...

Managing Distribution of Multicast Traffic with IGMP

Refer to Figure 19-4. Assume that R2 has started receiving multicast traffic from the server. R2 has to make a decision about forwarding this traffic on the Ethernet links. R2 needs to know the answers to the following questions:

QoS Requirements of Data

Hundreds of thousands of data applications exist on the Internet, in all shapes and sizes. Some are TCP, others are UDP; some are delay sensitive, others are not; some are bursty in nature, others are steady; some are lightweight, others are bandwidth hogsthe list goes on. Data traffic character...

Controlling Neighborships Using EIGRP Authentication

EIGRP authentication causes routers to authenticate every EIGRP message. To do so, the routers should use the same preshared key (PSK), generating an MD5 digest for each EIGRP message based on that shared PSK. If a router configured for EIGRP authentication receives an EIGRP message, and the mess...

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