Digital Subscriber Line

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) services provide high-speed, low-cost Internet access. They fit nicely between dialup and dedicated access services in terms of both price and speed. DSL service types vary based on which DSL technology is employed. The term xDSL is commonly used to refer to generic DSL...

Pruning from the Shared Tree

Once a PIM-SM router has joined a more efficient SPT, it may not need to receive multicast packets over the RPT any more. For example, when R4 in Figure 20-17 notices that it is receiving the group traffic over RPT and SPT, it can and should ask the RP to stop sending the traffic. To stop the RP ...

Mitigating the Detrimental Effects of RSVP-TE Restart

As mentioned earlier, RSVP-TE control-plane restart causes detrimental effects on the MPLS forwarding plane. To reduce such harmful effects, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the RSVP-TE GR restart mechanism.[5] RSVP-TE GR Mechanism RSVP-TE GR allows an LSR to express the ...

Disabling the Cisco Discovery Protocol

CDP can be an extremely useful feature because it tells you so much information about all of your neighboring devices. However, this can also represent a serious security problem. CDP packets are not encrypted in any way, so if somebody can just capture the CDP packets from a network segment as the...

The EIGRP Update Process

When EIGRP neighbors first become neighbors, they begin exchanging topology information using Update messages using these rules:

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