BGP Message Types

BGP uses four basic messages. Table 12-4 lists the message types and provides a brief description of each. Table 12-4 BGP Message Types

Multicast Addressing for Updates

EIGRP uses both multicast and unicast addressing. Some packets are sent reliably using Real-Time Protocol (RTP), a Cisco proprietary protocol that oversees the communication of EIGRP packets. These packets are sent with sequence numbers to make the transmission of data reliable. Hellos and ACKs do n...

Modularization and Layering

Two of the most common design and implementation methodologies are those of modularization and layering. Both enable the network problem to be broken down into something more manageable, and both involve the definition of interfaces that enable one module or layer to be modified without affecting ot...

Using Backup Interfaces

Cisco routers can watch the physical signals on an interface and trigger a backup interface if the primary link fails. The router will automatically drop the call after the primary circuit comes back up: Router1#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/...

Controlling Neighborships Using EIGRP Authentication

EIGRP authentication causes routers to authenticate every EIGRP message. To do so, the routers should use the same preshared key (PSK), generating an MD5 digest for each EIGRP message based on that shared PSK. If a router configured for EIGRP authentication receives an EIGRP message, and the mess...

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